石膏线条,起诉离婚,石墨文档-第十视角,围观中美贸易新动向

admin 3个月前 ( 07-16 10:02 ) 0条评论
摘要: 这位在欧洲核心地备受纪念的约翰·考克里尔是英国人,于1802年从曼彻斯特郊区搬到比利时,带来了当时最先进的蒸汽技术。...

ON SUNNY evenings in Brussels, young Eurocrats mingle on the bar terraces of the Place du Luxembourg outside the European Parliament. The continent’s future leaders pay little heed to the bronze-green statue of John Cockerill at its centre. The Englishman commemor石膏线条,申述离婚,石墨文档-第十视角,围观中美交易新动向ated at the heart of today’s EU moved to Belgium from near Manchester in 1802, importing the latest steam technologies. He founded a machine factory in a chateau near Lige which grew into an industrial empire and helped make Belgium second only to Britain in industrial sophistication.

比利时布鲁塞尔夜晚灯光璀璨,,年轻一代的欧盟官员们欧洲议会外的卢森堡广场上举办天台酒会。这些欧洲未来的首领们对毫不介意站立的广场中心的约翰考克里尔古铜雕像。这位在欧洲核心肠备受留念的约翰考克里尔是英国人,于1802年从曼彻斯特市郊搬到比利时,带来了其时最先进的蒸汽技能。他在列日邻近的一座城堡里兴办了一家机械厂,开展成为一个工业帝国,让比利时的工业兴旺程度仅次于英国。

Is Europe living up to Cockerill’s legacy? The continent has world-class companies in fields like biotechnology, luxury cars and nuclear energy, manufacturing sectors incorporating sophisticated software (a BMW these days is as much a 混沌血神computer on wheels as a car). London, a global tech hub, is home to DeepMind, a leading artificial intelligence (AI) outfit; Stockholm is home to Spotify, a dominant music-sharing service卡博士水控机; Cambridge-based Arm makes processor chips for almost all the world’s smartphones.

欧洲能在克里尔的技能上发玄觞直播间展吗? 在生物技能、奢华轿车和核能以及结合了杂乱软件的制造业(一辆宝马就像是一台带轮子的电脑)等范畴,欧洲大陆具有国际一流的企业,作为全球科技中心的伦敦具有抢先的人工智能企业DeepMind;斯德哥尔摩具有在线音乐巨子Spotify; 剑桥具有为国际上简直一切的智能手机出产处理大地园园通器芯片的Arm。

Yet still Europe lacks large firms in areas like social media, e-commerc七七数码e and cloud computing comparable in scale to America’s Google and Microsoft, or China’s Alibaba and Baidu. Of the world’s 15 largest digital 妖周泰firms, all are American or Chinese. Of the top 200, eight are European. Such firms matter. They operate dominant online platforms and are writing the rules of the new economy in the way Cockerill’s innovations did in his day.

但是,在交际媒体、电子商务和云计等算范畴,欧洲缺少可与美国谷歌和微软,或我国阿里巴巴和百度混为一谈的大企业。全球最大的15家数字企业悉数来自美国和我国。在前200名中,只需8家欧洲企业。这样的企业无足轻重,主导网络渠道拟定经济新规矩,犹如考克里尔当所所为。

Mariya Gabriel, the EU’s digital economy commissioner, worries that Silicon Valley and China now make the big decisions about the internet, and that 唐米拖拉机this affects European domestic policy. She is right. Even BMW, for example, does much of its cutting-edge research in California and Shanghai. In Brus石膏线条,申述离婚,石墨文档-第十视角,围观中美交易新动向sels officials talk of a “Sputnik moment”, a sudden realisation of its technological disadvantage, akin to America’s when the Soviet Union put the first satellite into space in 1957. Asked whether the continent will ever produce its own Google, one burst out laughing.

欧盟数字经济专员玛丽亚加布里尔忧虑,美国硅谷和我国现在主导互联网,将影响欧洲的国内方针。她是对的。例如,即便宝马,也在加利福尼亚和上海进行了很多前沿研讨。在布鲁塞尔,官员们谈到 “人造卫星时间”,忽然意识到其技能下风,欧洲的境况就像1957年苏联将第一颗卫星送入太空时的美国。当问及欧洲能否发生自己的谷歌时,有人会大笑起来。

Europe’s history explains the lag. In the 18th century, its lack of standardisation made it the cradle of the industrial revolution. Rules and markets varied. Entrepreneurs who did not find support or luck in one country, like Cockerill, could find it in another. All this created competition and variety. Today, however, Europe’s patchwork is a disadvantage. New technologies require vast lakes of data, skilled labou石膏线条,申述离婚,石墨文档-第十视角,围观中美交易新动向r and capital. Despite the EU’s single market, in Europe these often remain in national ponds. Language divides get in the way. Vast, speculative long-term capital investments that ma碳氢油项目是否实在ke firms like Uber possible are too rarely 石膏线条,申述离婚,石墨文档-第十视角,围观中美交易新动向available on European national markets. True, there is progress. European universities are working more closely together, and in 2015 the EU adopted a new digital strategy that has simplified tax rules, ended roaming cha叫我秋香姐rges and removed barriers to cross-border online content sales. But about half of its measures—like smoother flows of data—remain mere proposals.

欧洲的前史解说了跳动的人生它的落后状况。18世纪的欧洲因为没有单一规范,使其成为工业革命的摇篮。规矩和商场发生了不同的改变。像考克里尔这样的企业家在一个国家开展受阻还能够挑选其他国家。一切这些为欧洲发明了竞争力和多样性。但是,现在,欧洲的多元化却成了一种下风。新技能需求数量巨大的数据、技能工人和本钱。虽然欧盟是一致商场,但在欧洲内部,这些要素局限于各国之内。语言不通成为妨碍。像对优步这样的长时间巨额投机性出资在欧洲各国商场简直不或许完成。不过,欧洲的境况华润水泥供货商门户仍在前进。欧洲大学之间愈加严密协作。2015年,欧盟采取了一项新的数字战略,简化了税收规矩,停止了周游通讯收费,消除了跨境在线内容出售的妨碍。惋惜的是其中有一半办法——例如促进数据流通——仅停步于提议。

In the 19th century Europe was the first continent to industrialise, and institutions based on th石膏线条,申述离婚,石墨文档-第十视角,围观中美交易新动向at experience have deeper roots there than elsewhere. Most European countries are still run by marmoreal Christian or social democrats descended from the struggle between bourgeoisie and workers. Their propensity for bold thinking is石膏线条,申述离婚,石墨文档-第十视角,围观中美交易新动向 limited. Europ滴血貔貅ean investors expect to be able to claim physical assets against their losses if a firm goes bust—bedevilling software startups than ten to lack them. Research is too often incremental, not radical. The burden of early industrialisation is also something of a geographic tale. Europe’s traditional industrial heartlands are struggling to adapt to the new digital era, but those once on the periphery—Bavaria and Swabia in Germany, and cities like Helsinki, Tallinn, Cambridge and Montpellier—are leading the way, without the institutional fetters of old factory towns like Lige.

19世纪的欧洲第一个步入工业化,由此开展起来的准则系统比其他区域根基更为雄厚。财物阶级和工人之间的奋斗衍生出基督徒和社会民主影响着大多欧洲国家。他们思想保存。 假如一家企业破产,欧洲出资者也期望能够请求什物财物以抵挡丢失,这让底子没有什物财物的软件创业企业百思不得其解。研讨往往是持续性增加的,而不是突发性的。前期工业化的担负能够归因于地舆要素。欧洲传统的工业中心肠区现在正在尽力习惯新的数字年代。像德国的巴伐利亚州和斯瓦比亚、赫尔辛基、塔林、剑桥和蒙彼利埃等边际城市锋芒毕露,不受列朝鲜飞行员是什么梗日市等老式准则业城市的准则性捆绑,。

The 20th century also restrains Europe’s technological competitiveness today. The collective experience of Nazi and Soviet surveillance and dictatorship makes many Europeans protective of their data (Germans, for example, are still reluctant to use electronic payments). Moreover, since 1945 the continent has mostly been at peace and protected by outsiders. So it has no institutions comparable to DARPA, the American military-research institution where technologies like microchips, GPS and the internet were born. Nor has it anything comparable to China’s military investments in technology today.

到20世纪,欧洲的技能竞争力仍没有提高。纳粹和苏联的监督和独裁统治的团体经历使欧洲的数据维护极为严峻 (例如,德国人依然不愿意运用电子付出方法)。此外,自1945年以来,欧洲大陆基本上处于平和状况,并遭到外界的维护。因而欧洲不木吉の鬼步或许诞生像美国国防部高档研讨方案局这样的军方研讨组织。该组织开发出了微芯片、GPS和互联网等技能。即便与我国现在的军事技能投入也没有可比性。

In Cockerill’s shadow

在考克里尔的影子之丽柜下

The equivalent historical forces in the 21st century could prove to be differing attitudes to migration. America’s technological superiority is built on its ability to attract talented, success-hungry people, one reason businesses resist Republican plans to limit legal immigration. Of the 98 high-tech firms in the Fortune 500, 45 (including Apple and Google) were founded by immigrants or their children. China lacks immigration but sends many of its young abroad to study, and then repatriates their skills. Europe does neither and treats migration as a threat, as its debates about how best to seal off the Mediterranean show.

21世纪,相同的前史要素能在对待移民的不同情绪上得到明证。美国的技能优势来自于招引巴望成功的各类人才,这也是企业抵抗共和党约束合法移民方案的原因之一。《财富》杂志500强的98闪耀拳芒家高科技企业中,有45家(包含苹果和谷歌)是由移民或移民子孙兴办的。我国没有移民,但将许多年轻人送往国外学习,并将技能运用到国内。欧洲既不鼓舞移民也不输送人才出国学习,却讨论着封闭地中海的种种好处。

If it wanted to, Europe could improv蜀山奇侠之血魔重生e. Its governments and the EU could create a genuine digital single market, do more to promote enterprise and institutional innovation and make the most of its strengths in, for example, biomedicine and transport. Better integration of capital markets would help as well. Europe could harness the growing 马哲有点甜uncertainty about America’s trans-Atlantic security guarantees to invest serious cash in its own DARPA-equivalents. Europeans may even eventually come to view immigration as an opportunity. But all of this p石膏线条,申述离婚,石墨文档-第十视角,围观中美交易新动向erhaps demands a greater a才智树宝物二加一wareness of history itself, of the diverging technological pasts and possible futures hovering over the continent like the bronze John Cockerill over the Place du Luxembourg.

只需有主意,欧洲就能够改观。欧洲各国政府能够与欧盟创立真实的数字一致商场,更多地促进企业和组织立异,并在生物医学和交通运输等范畴充分发挥自己的优势。还能够更好地整合本钱商场以供给助力。趁美国对跨大西洋安全保证渐弱,欧洲可大力开展自己的国防研讨方案局。欧洲人乃至能够将移民视为一个时机。不过,一切这一切或许都需求认清前史,清楚知道欧洲技能的曩昔与未来,就像知道到约翰考克里尔的青铜铸像对卢森堡广场的含义相同。

编译:杨小娟

修改:翻吧君

来历:The Economist (October 18, 2018)

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作者:admin本文地址:http://www.10th-insight.com/articles/2293.html发布于 3个月前 ( 07-16 10:02 )
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